Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of managing the information that a company needs to run its business operations. It includes data storage and distribution to users and applications and then modifying it if necessary and monitoring changes to the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted by unexpected failures. It is a part of the entire informational infrastructure of a company which supports decision-making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) that allowed for the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a broad range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data according to the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table contains a set of attributes or fields that contain information about data entities. Relational models, invented by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most used database type today. This design is based upon normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It also makes it easier to update data without the need to update many sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level concerns cost, scalability, and other operational issues, such as the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a mix of various external views based on different models of data and could include virtual tables that are computed using generic data in order to improve the performance.

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